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Intellectual Map as a Means of Forming Language Competence in the Study

A foreign language is a language not commonly spoken in the country of the speaker. However, there must be a defined distinction between a foreign language and a second language. It is also a language not spoken in the native country of the person referred to especially a learner. Some children learn more than one language from birth or a very young age then they are bilingual or multilingual. These children can be said to have two, three, or more mother tongues: neither language is foreign to that child, even if one language is a foreign language for the vast majority of people in the child's birth country. For example, a child learning English from his English father and Russian at school in Russia can speak both English and Russian, but neither is a foreign language to them. This is common in countries such as India, South Africa, Cameroon, or Canada due to these countries having multiple official languages.
This leaves the question" Why do people learn a foreign language? and what challenges do they face? 1) Motivation Motivation involves both the reasons that learners have for learning a language as well as the intensity of their feelings. For example, some learners only study the language because of a language requirement, while others expect to use the language in their future careers. In addition to having different reasons for language learning, people who hope to use the language for career purposes probably have a stronger motivation than those people who simply hope to pass a language requirement. 2.)Anxiety Anxiety includes uncomfortable feelings when learning or using a new language. Several studies have found that approximately 1/3 of American foreign language learners experience anxiety in response to language learning (Horwitz, Tallon, and Luo, 2009). Most anxious language learners feel uncomfortable when speaking or listening to the new language, but some language learners also find writing or even reading to be anxiety-provoking. 3.)Learner Beliefs Beliefs about language learning are important because they influence how students approach language learning and the language learning strategies that they choose to use. Many language learners, for example, think that they are too old to learn a foreign language well. Some believe the teachers are more concerned about the lessons that they do not pay sufficient attention to their learner's needs. 4.)Timing. Learning a foreign language requires an individual's time and patience. when learning a new language an individual must devote at least 2 hours or more a day practicing new words (10-20 per day) and learning how to construct sentences. listening to music in the language could be very helpful or watching sports just depends on the learner's hobbies. As frustrating as it will or might get gradually with time the learner will be making little utterances in the language. Visual Methods Visual learning is a type of learning style in which students prefer to use images, graphics, colors, and maps to communicate ideas and thoughts. Visual learners must-see information to learn it. These learners are likely to have a photographic memory and may use color, tone, and brightness to recall information. In class, visual learners will benefit from seeing diagrams drawn out, for example, on a chalkboard, and in slideshows. Visual learning refers to a mode of learning where students rely on graphic aids to remember and learn the material. Visual learners can easily visualize objects, have a great sense of balance and alignment, are very color-oriented, and can effortlessly envision imagery. Visual learners learn best by color-coding their notes, making to-do lists, and using concept maps to organize their thoughts. examples of visual Methods of learning a foreign language are. 1)Photo Essay's 2)Diagrams 3)videos 1) Photo Essay's - Photo essays are simply sequences of photos. With photo essays, I don't mean the combinations of images and voiceovers that have become known as "Photo Stories." What I mean is just simple sequences of images. The camera phones in our pockets give us powerful storytelling tools. Great use of a photo essay could be to compare and contrast aspects of a workplace, or a visual diary. 2)Diagrams - Technically, mind maps and flowcharts are types of diagrams, and the use of a diagram in learning a language is a huge area. Visual thinkers often just have trouble organizing thoughts into paragraphs and logic essays. This is where diagrams can be useful, as a way to organize words. An example is when a comparison needs to be made: this could be just two boxes side by side with dot points in each box. 3) Videos -This can simply be said as a simplified learning process as it makes a learner of a language watch what they can connect to Emotionally. When visual images are linked to emotions in the human brain they are referred to as memories. That’s the reason why the visual content of videos or any images creates long-lasting memories. This can create a feeling of Nostalgia for the learner which could be a good thing going forward. These methods are good for learning a language because they break down information into manageable pieces that are easier to absorb. Increase the learner's interest in the Language. When the Learner gets to learn in a way that they like and understand, they will pay closer attention and the results will be more obvious. Visual learning also helps Language learners to develop visual thinking, which is a learning style whereby the learner comes better to understand and retain information better by associating ideas, words, and concepts with images. SMARTCARD A smart card is a device that includes an embedded integrated circuit chip (ICC) that can be either a secure microcontroller or equivalent intelligence with internal memory or a memory chip alone. The card connects to a reader with direct physical contact or with a remote contactless radio frequency interface. A smart card is a card that stores information on a microprocessor or memory chip rather than the magnetic stripe found on ATMs and credit cards Below are the features of a smart card. 1.)Authentication. Smart cards provide ways to authenticate others who want to gain access to the card. These mechanisms can be used to validate users, devices, or applications wishing to use the data on the card's chip. These features can protect privacy by ensuring that a banking application has been authenticated as having the appropriate access rights before accessing financial data or functions on the card, for example. 2.)Secure data storage. Smart cards provide a way to securely store data on the card. This data can only be accessed through the smart-card operating system by those with proper access rights. This feature can be utilized by a system to enhance privacy by storing personal user data on the card rather than in a central database, for example. In this situation, the user has better knowledge and control of when their data is being granted access—and who is involved. 3.) Encryption. Smart cards provide a robust set of encryption capabilities, including key generation, secure key storage, hashing, and digital signing. These capabilities can be used to protect privacy in many ways. For example, a smart-card system can produce a digital signature for an e-mail message, providing a way to validate the e-mail's authenticity. This protects the message from being tampered with, and also provides the recipient with assurance about origination. The fact that the signing key originated from a smart card adds credibility to the origin and the intent of the signer. 4.) Strong device security. Smart-card technology is extremely difficult to duplicate or forge and has built-in tamper resistance. Smart-card chips include a variety of hardware and software capabilities that detect and react to tampering attempts and help counter possible attacks. 5.) Secure communications. Smart cards provide secure communication between the card and the reader. Similar to security protocols used in many networks, this feature allows smart cards to send and receive data in a secure, private manner. 6.) Biometrics. Smart cards provide ways to securely store biometric templates and perform biometric matching functions. These features can be used to improve privacy in systems that use biometrics. For example, storing fingerprint templates on smart cards rather than in a central database can be an effective way to increase privacy in a single sign-on system that uses fingerprint biometrics as the single sign-on credential. 7.)Personal device. A smart card is, of course, a personal and portable device associated with a particular cardholder. The smart-card plastic is often personalized, providing an even stronger binding to the cardholder. These features, while somewhat obvious, can be leveraged to improve privacy. For example, a healthcare application might elect to store prescription information on the card vs. on paper to improve the accuracy and privacy of patient prescriptions. A smartcard offers a wide range of visibility in the sense that it stores information based on your needs. Narrowing it down to the Educational system in learning a foreign language, a smartcard can help create communication, easier access to files, communities that can help a speaker learn a foreign language, especially in this digital age where everything is going digital, it can be more comfortable and convenient.

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