Transforming Young Leaders for Maximum Impact


ORIGIN OF BOKO HARAM INSURGENCY AND IT IMPACT ON GIRLS CHILD EDUCATION IN NORTH-EAST NIGERIA By JOHN USMAN JULIUS Edited by The Leaders Hub Team Boko Haram is actually a name in Hausa Language known in Arabic as Jamalatu Ahlis Sunna. These group was committed to the propagation of the prophets teachings and Jihad. Mohammed Yusuf, a well-known preacher and proselytizer of the Ezala Sact of Islam was the Sact leader in Maiduguri region of Nigeria. He began to radicalize his discourse to reject all secular aspects of the Nigeria society Mohammed Yusuf teachings was against western education. Therefore the name “Boko Haram” means “Western education is forbidden” and is derived from one of Chief tenets of the teachings of Muhammed Yusuf. The group’s early leader Claim that western system of education (“book” in Hause) and holding of government jobs are religiously forbidden, or haram. Mohammed embraced Saudi Arabia’s Wahhabi/Salati strain of Islam in the mid-1990s, Yusuf called upon Muslim to remove at all cost if necessary, Nigeria Secular government and replace it with an Islamic state. Though he was able to avoid prosecution for treason for a longtime. His follower’s began to grow and they become very aggressive it was later prove that the group was stockpiling weapons and this soon began to worry local authorities.
After years of tension and a series of incident from the group, it finally exploded IN July 2009 when the group of Yusuf were stop by the police in the city of Maiduguri – Boko Haram tradition home- as they were on the way to cemetery to bury a comrade. The officers, a part of a special operation aimed at stamping out violence in Maiduguri, Borno State of the northern Nigeria. The confrontation that follows as regarding using of helmet by his followers on are on a motorcycle with the special forces resulted of gun battle, and some of his follower were shot and wounded by the police. Yusuf responded by unleashing an armed uprising against the system, the group break into prisons, and attacking government buildings and police stations. Fighting quickly spread across the Northeast state and lasted several days. The Federal government responded by the development of Federal soldiers into Maiduguri and all the states in the north-east Mohammed Yusuf was arrested given to police command in Abuja were he later die
The news did not go down well with his follows which later resulted to attack in potiskum in the north east, and a total of 1000 people were reported died in the fighting. Boko haram was banned by the Federal Government. It’s mosques were demolished and it’s surviving members scattered and went undergroup. Boko haram quickly turn into a terrorist organization that was led by the second-in-command Abubakar Shakau in 2009.
Abubakar Shakau relocated to Sambisa Forest located in Borno State in north-east Nigeria. From the forest, Abubakar Shakau group waged a bloody war against the Nigeria government. This forest was a game reserve gazette by the British Colonial Administrator in 1958. In 1977, the area was regazatted as a natural Game Reserve for preservation of rare animals and also a way for the generating funds from tourism. The forest covers about 518km2 of landscape on a flatland.
From this forest, Abubakar Shakau and his group plan their attack and carried it as planned in various state of the north-east. Boko Haram group carries out attack, that lead to the activities of suicide bomb in Maiduguri in September, 2010. The was series of bomb attacks against their targets using female suicide bombers.
Boko haram began to carry out sophisticated attacks, against soft targets, which later progress in 2011 into suicide bombing of police force Headquarter buildings in Abuja.
Before the government could recover from that attack, the new broke out that the United Nation office in Abuja was attacked On December 29, (2011).
Boko Haram also attack St. Theresa’s Catholic Church in Madala, a satellite town about 40km (25 miles) from the centre of the Capital Abuja.
Boko Haram continue with their co-ordinated attacks within a very short time. In October, 2015, there was an explosions on the outskirts of the Nigeria Capital Abuja which killed at least 18 people in Kuje township near a police station and another one at the market. On 14th April, 2014, a bomb-laden vehicle exploded at a crowded bus park in Nyanya, kill 71 people which the leader of Boko haram claimed responsibility for the bombing.
As Boko Haram grew increasingly violent, tensions grew between Mamman Nur, a leader of an Independent Faction within Boko Haram and Shekau. Ansaru conducted numerous attack against foreigners in North-east Nigeria. Ansaru leader was capture in 2016, which ended it campaign. Boko haram has been estimated by Amnesty International to have killed about 20,000 and displaced over 2.2 million in the wider Lake Chad region. Thousand of girls and young woman have been abducted, from their schools. Noticeably, it kidnapped over 300 young girls from a secular school in Chibok, Nigeria in April, 2014. Just over 50 girls were able to escape immediately after the attack. And out of this only 106 girls were rescued in January 2018.
On 19th February, 2018, Boko Haram stormed Government Girl’s Science and Technical College in Dapchi, Yobe State. They kidnapped 110 schoolgirls aged between 11 and 19 years old.
They were release in March, after ransom was paid, and the girls were warned never to return to school again. Five girls also died during the abduction. But one of their captives, Leah Sharibu, a Christian has not been released.
The terrorists struck in Government Girls Secondary School in Zamfara State and kidnapped about 300 schoolgirls. It was the fourth of such massive kidnap by terrorists in North-east Nigeria. When this kidnapping occurs girls and women pay a great price for it. They are subjected to abuses, and their teachers are not left out. The violence against female students and teachers has been left on check by the government. Boko Haram has killed an estimated 2,295 teachers, and over 19,000 teachers have been displaced by the conflict. The United Nation children’s Fund (UNICEF) estimated that more than 1,400 schools have been destroyed, deranged or looted primarily in the North-east, and more than 600,000 children have lost access to education Attacks on education create a ripple effect, setting in motion a range of negative impacts such as loss of education, early marriage, early pregnancy and stigma associated with sexual violence and children born from rape, all of which can dramatically affect female students’ futures. These harms often exacerbate and exacerbated by preexisting forms of gender discrimination and harmful practices that negatively affect girls and women education. Boko haram targeted on schools and the abduction of school girls, has been harmful for female students access to education. Many of the female students have confess that they had been forced to suspend their education after their school was attacked or permanently dropped out of school because of the attack. Poverty has been the single greatest obstacle to education in North-east Nigeria. Parents inability to pay for their girls school expenses has been further impeded by the conflict. In addition female students and their parents had been too afraid for their girls to return to school. As a result of the conflict, many schools significantly permanently shoot down.
Many survivours also report suffering mental and physical health problems because of the abuses they have suffered. Some described continuing to endure bleeding and other serious gynecological problems as a result of rape. Many of the students, as well as some of the teachers, described recurring nightmares, anxiety, being easily frightened, an inability to focus and other signs commonly associated with trauma. Their traumatic experience often have an impact on their ability to pursue their education and may also impede their ability to move on with their lives in other important ways. In a context such as Nigeria, in which a significant focus of the conflict is targeted at school and the formal education system, there is often little difference in Boko Haram’s motive for abducting girls from a school campus is to further show their hate and it ideology against western system of education. Their ideology forbids any kind of western education for female and girl child. What this mean is that girls and young women education is at risk. The abduction loudly expresses their hatred for western education, as such this abduction take place in school campus and having the school girls put on their school uniform.
The Nigeria government endorsing of safe school declaration which was sign in May 2015 should not be handle with a kit glove. The Nigeria government with the support of international donors and humanitarian organization, as well as national and international NGOs, should develop a number of initiatives and measures to rebuild school and provide Improved Security for schools. Nigeria government should provide free and compulsory girls education at all levels of education. It is appropriate for all the religious leaders are to play active role in encouraging girls education on their respective communities by providing timely information to security personnel when they sense any form of attack. REFERENCE (1) U.S Department of State: Bureau of counter terrorism and countering violent extremism “Terroriest Designations of Boko Haram and Ansaru. Nov. 13, 2013. (2) European Union Delegation to the United National – New York. “Eu lists Boko Haram as a terrorist organization. “May 6, 2014. (3) GCPEA (2018) “I will never GoBack to school.” The Impact of Attach on Education for Nigeria Women and Girls –Summary. (4) David, Cook (2011)”The Rise of Boko Haram in Nigeria.” (5) Nigeria Boko Haram 101 Joe Baviever Grantee Benedicte Kurzen Grantee. (6)