Transforming Young Leaders for Maximum Impact


ORIGIN OF BOKO HARAM INSURGENCY AND IT IMPACT ON GIRLS CHILD EDUCATION IN NORTH-EAST NIGERIA By JOHN USMAN JULIUS Edited by The Leaders Hub Team Boko Haram is actually a name in Hausa Language known in Arabic as Jamalatu Ahlis Sunna. These group was committed to the propagation of the prophets teachings and Jihad. Mohammed Yusuf, a well-known preacher and proselytizer of the Ezala Sact of Islam was the Sact leader in Maiduguri region of Nigeria. He began to radicalize his discourse to reject all secular aspects of the Nigeria society Mohammed Yusuf teachings was against western education. Therefore the name “Boko Haram” means “Western education is forbidden” and is derived from one of Chief tenets of the teachings of Muhammed Yusuf. The group’s early leader Claim that western system of education (“book” in Hause) and holding of government jobs are religiously forbidden, or haram. Mohammed embraced Saudi Arabia’s Wahhabi/Salati strain of Islam in the mid-1990s, Yusuf called upon Muslim to remove at all cost if necessary, Nigeria Secular government and replace it with an Islamic state. Though he was able to avoid prosecution for treason for a longtime. His follower’s began to grow and they become very aggressive it was later prove that the group was stockpiling weapons and this soon began to worry local authorities.
After years of tension and a series of incident from the group, it finally exploded IN July 2009 when the group of Yusuf were stop by the police in the city of Maiduguri – Boko Haram tradition home- as they were on the way to cemetery to bury a comrade. The officers, a part of a special operation aimed at stamping out violence in Maiduguri, Borno State of the northern Nigeria. The confrontation that follows as regarding using of helmet by his followers on are on a motorcycle with the special forces resulted of gun battle, and some of his follower were shot and wounded by the police. Yusuf responded by unleashing an armed uprising against the system, the group break into prisons, and attacking government buildings and police stations. Fighting quickly spread across the Northeast state and lasted several days. The Federal government responded by the development of Federal soldiers into Maiduguri and all the states in the north-east Mohammed Yusuf was arrested given to police command in Abuja were he later die
The news did not go down well with his follows which later resulted to attack in potiskum in the north east, and a total of 1000 people were reported died in the fighting. Boko haram was banned by the Federal Government. It’s mosques were demolished and it’s surviving members scattered and went undergroup. Boko haram quickly turn into a terrorist organization that was led by the second-in-command Abubakar Shakau in 2009.
Abubakar Shakau relocated to Sambisa Forest located in Borno State in north-east Nigeria. From the forest, Abubakar Shakau group waged a bloody war against the Nigeria government. This forest was a game reserve gazette by the British Colonial Administrator in 1958. In 1977, the area was regazatted as a natural Game Reserve for preservation of rare animals and also a way for the generating funds from tourism. The forest covers about 518km2 of landscape on a flatland.
From this forest, Abubakar Shakau and his group plan their attack and carried it as planned in various state of the north-east. Boko Haram group carries out attack, that lead to the activities of suicide bomb in Maiduguri in September, 2010. The was series of bomb attacks against their targets using female suicide bombers.
Boko haram began to carry out sophisticated attacks, against soft targets, which later progress in 2011 into suicide bombing of police force Headquarter buildings in Abuja.
Before the government could recover from that attack, the new broke out that the United Nation office in Abuja was attacked On December 29, (2011).
Boko Haram also attack St. Theresa’s Catholic Church in Madala, a satellite town about 40km (25 miles) from the centre of the Capital Abuja.
Boko Haram continue with their co-ordinated attacks within a very short time. In October, 2015, there was an explosions on the outskirts of the Nigeria Capital Abuja which killed at least 18 people in Kuje township near a police station and another one at the market. On 14th April, 2014, a bomb-laden vehicle exploded at a crowded bus park in Nyanya, kill 71 people which the leader of Boko haram claimed responsibility for the bombing.
As Boko Haram grew increasingly violent, tensions grew between Mamman Nur, a leader of an Independent Faction within Boko Haram and Shekau. Ansaru conducted numerous attack against foreigners in North-east Nigeria. Ansaru leader was capture in 2016, which ended it campaign. Boko haram has been estimated by Amnesty International to have killed about 20,000 and displaced over 2.2 million in the wider Lake Chad region. Thousand of girls and young woman have been abducted, from their schools. Noticeably, it kidnapped over 300 young girls from a secular school in Chibok, Nigeria in April, 2014. Just over 50 girls were able to escape immediately after the attack. And out of this only 106 girls were rescued in January 2018.
On 19th February, 2018, Boko Haram stormed Government Girl’s Science and Technical College in Dapchi, Yobe State. They kidnapped 110 schoolgirls aged between 11 and 19 years old.
They were release in March, after ransom was paid, and the girls were warned never to return to school again. Five girls also died during the abduction. But one of their captives, Leah Sharibu, a Christian has not been released.
The terrorists struck in Government Girls Secondary School in Zamfara State and kidnapped about 300 schoolgirls. It was the fourth of such massive kidnap by terrorists in North-east Nigeria. When this kidnapping occurs girls and women pay a great price for it. They are subjected to abuses, and their teachers are not left out. The violence against female students and teachers has been left on check by the government. Boko Haram has killed an estimated 2,295 teachers, and over 19,000 teachers have been displaced by the conflict. The United Nation children’s Fund (UNICEF) estimated that more than 1,400 schools have been destroyed, deranged or looted primarily in the North-east, and more than 600,000 children have lost access to education Attacks on education create a ripple effect, setting in motion a range of negative impacts such as loss of education, early marriage, early pregnancy and stigma associated with sexual violence and children born from rape, all of which can dramatically affect female students’ futures. These harms often exacerbate and exacerbated by preexisting forms of gender discrimination and harmful practices that negatively affect girls and women education. Boko haram targeted on schools and the abduction of school girls, has been harmful for female students access to education. Many of the female students have confess that they had been forced to suspend their education after their school was attacked or permanently dropped out of school because of the attack. Poverty has been the single greatest obstacle to education in North-east Nigeria. Parents inability to pay for their girls school expenses has been further impeded by the conflict. In addition female students and their parents had been too afraid for their girls to return to school. As a result of the conflict, many schools significantly permanently shoot down.
Many survivours also report suffering mental and physical health problems because of the abuses they have suffered. Some described continuing to endure bleeding and other serious gynecological problems as a result of rape. Many of the students, as well as some of the teachers, described recurring nightmares, anxiety, being easily frightened, an inability to focus and other signs commonly associated with trauma. Their traumatic experience often have an impact on their ability to pursue their education and may also impede their ability to move on with their lives in other important ways. In a context such as Nigeria, in which a significant focus of the conflict is targeted at school and the formal education system, there is often little difference in Boko Haram’s motive for abducting girls from a school campus is to further show their hate and it ideology against western system of education. Their ideology forbids any kind of western education for female and girl child. What this mean is that girls and young women education is at risk. The abduction loudly expresses their hatred for western education, as such this abduction take place in school campus and having the school girls put on their school uniform.
The Nigeria government endorsing of safe school declaration which was sign in May 2015 should not be handle with a kit glove. The Nigeria government with the support of international donors and humanitarian organization, as well as national and international NGOs, should develop a number of initiatives and measures to rebuild school and provide Improved Security for schools. Nigeria government should provide free and compulsory girls education at all levels of education. It is appropriate for all the religious leaders are to play active role in encouraging girls education on their respective communities by providing timely information to security personnel when they sense any form of attack. REFERENCE (1) U.S Department of State: Bureau of counter terrorism and countering violent extremism “Terroriest Designations of Boko Haram and Ansaru. Nov. 13, 2013. (2) European Union Delegation to the United National – New York. “Eu lists Boko Haram as a terrorist organization. “May 6, 2014. (3) GCPEA (2018) “I will never GoBack to school.” The Impact of Attach on Education for Nigeria Women and Girls –Summary. (4) David, Cook (2011)”The Rise of Boko Haram in Nigeria.” (5) Nigeria Boko Haram 101 Joe Baviever Grantee Benedicte Kurzen Grantee. (6)

There is Need for Proper Education for a Girl Child

The Leaders Hub conducted survey on how Nigeria can better support Female folk both in Education and Career wish, so lets listen to what young female child are saying in their respective opinion. The Leaders hub will continue to create space for the marginalize group to air their view in regards to raising skills and intellectual female leader to balance power shift among the two folk.


Article Written by Uchechi Kennedy Compiled by The Leaders Hub Team
Girl child education contributes to the development of a society economy. The girl child is a female child from birth to eighteen (18 years) of age. It is a year before a girl child becomes an adult. The girl child has been seen as a weaker vessel who do not have right to be educated. Educating girls enhances growth rates and reduces social disparities. But in recent times, according to the civilization age, the girl child education is very important to the growth of an economy that is, enlightening the whole country making them have an equal participant in being educated for civilization sake and growth, development of women have been called the weaker sex in other to prove societal discrimination and oppression against them.
They are to remain silent, do all manner of house work, bear children and do all manner of hard work each day. The girl child are not heard both in private and in the public places of decision making. The girl child was seen as the property of a man and the family when not given our in marriage. Consequently, her right are hidden by tradition custom, and the display of male authority over women.
Girls Child Educatiom The girl child is seen as a younger female person who will eventually grow up to become an adult and probably marry. In 1672, Nigeria has a million children of primary school age that do not go to school, which is the brightest number for any country in the world. Some many things prevent children from going to school and sexy is very evident factor. 68% of boys enroll in primary school compare to 58% of girls.
Important of a girl child education The girl child needs to be educated to acquire skills and know ledge needed to advance herself for socialization, interaction and self confidence. The girl child education prepare her to face the realities of life and help her to be a good mother and wife in any family she find herself in future. Girls play multiple roles in the household, society and the world at large. They help with housework, work in factories, care for elder and younger family members and prepare themselves to take on the responsibilities of adulthood. Benefit of Girl Child Education Girl child education is an activity that imparts knowledge or skill. Education gives us knowledge of the world ground. Education is needed for development and improvement of a nation. It empowers people and strengthens the nation education brings about innovation. Creative thinking comes from education. Education is key to creating, apply and extending knowledge thereby ensure the development of economic. Girl child education reduces illiteracy. Illiteracy is one of the highest causes of poverty. Education for girls is one of the key to economic development. When knowledge is power, education of a girl child from the foundation of nursery and primary school triggers will give the necessary power to succeed. Advantage of a girl child education, it enhance economy growth, eradicate poverty. When a society is less educated especially the girl child, geting to maturity stage they won’t be able to know what next to do, contribute due to lack of enlightenment which decreases child and mother mortality rate. Factors affecting a girls child education in Nigeria A girl child education has faced a lot of hindrances, due to so many factors 1. Early marriage: Most often marriage is seen as a higher priority than to be educated. Most victims of child marriage are girls. It is estimated that every year 15 million of girls are married before they become 18 years. Immediately after marriage come pregnancy or after their marriage is consummated, the girl child leave the educational system and because they have less education skills, they and their families are more likely to live in poverty. There are child marriage in every part of the world, including Europe and North American. The highest rates of girls under 18 getting married are in Niger (76%), Central African Republic and Chad (68%).
2. Pregnancy: More than one million girls under18 years give birth each year; Either due to early marriage or unpredicted pregnancy, many do not return after giving birth due to the stigma, lack of child care and unavailability of flexible school programs. These young female have not yet reached adulthood and the. causes of child girl pregnancy. Girl child early pregnancy may be linked to things which as lack of education, peer pressure and early engagement of early sexual activity. How early pregnancy affect young mothers; there are at a higher risk for pregnancy – related high blood pressure (preeclampsia)and its complications than average age mothers. Also there risks for the baby they include premature birth and low birth weight of the child. 3. Poverty: educated women rarely die during child birth and they likely to have healthy and well nourished children than their non-educated counterparts. We all know that, a child born by an literate mother is 50% more likely to survive past the age of five (5) than that of the illiterate mother who is do know much about child care and proper upbringing and nutritional value of child. Lack of finance to train a girl child can lead to a drop out or a stop in the education of a child. Dropping out of school early is a significant issue among girls. Due to poverty higher percentage of girls drops out of school. 12% girls compare to 10% boys will drop out of primary school in the last class, class 6, before completion, majority of the girls who drop out of school live in rural areas and mostly found in the North East or North West regions (NPC, 2009). 70% young woman (age 15-24) in the North West have not completed primary school (UNESCO, 2014).
YOUNG GIRL OUT OF SCHOOL 4. Insecurity: Insecurity has cripple education in Nigeria, students have been risking their lives for education, many are going to school with fear of the unknown. According to report, about 800 secondary school and university students have been kidnapped in various attacks by terrorists and bandits in the last six months. In 2014 when about 276 girls were abducted from Government Girls Secondary School, Chibok, Borno State. The abducted of the Chibok girls was condemned locally, globally condemned by many. Insecurity has really triggered fear in girl child many of them has lost confidence in Nigeria security. Polygamy: Muslim are majority among other that practice polygamy. And they see any person who marry only one wife are seen still being considered bachelors most times these men are not invited to meeting where there is an important issues to be discussed in a communities. Polygamy plays an important role when it comes to sending the children to school study revealed that parent are unable to meet the cost of their children education because of the heavy responsibilities of taking care of all the wives. Girl child is always at a disadvantage when it comes to who will be sent to school first between the boy and the girl. The girl child, at times are given out in marriage without their wish and time. They are also sent to become a maid. They are not allowed to attend school and even not given proper training and care before leaving their home to another. Lastly it is of great opinion that women should be given the opportunities to explore and enhance their limitless potentials for them to be able to achieve this freedom from stigmatization and deprivation. Most of all, freedom of limitless education women should be given opportunity also to express themselves and a platform to speak on any matter in the society at large. All these are for them not to be treated as slave in any home, their voices should be allowed also to deliberate on matters arising at any given time and occasions.
There is need for a conducive environment and to equip the girl child educational system, For the world of today and tomorrow, to foster self-esteem and respect for others, to widen horizons and to give them the means to reach horizons and beyond. A girl child is an individual, unique and creative, we should help them come into confident possession of their innate talents, improve their skills by impacting relevant knowledge required to succeed with a caring respectful, multicultural environment. The government should be committed to instilling in each girl child a desire to learn and recognize self. References Books African Research Vol. 4 (2) April, 2010 PP. 418 -432. Girl Child Education in Niger 1672. African research review Vol. 4(2) April 2010. NPC (2012) National Population Commissi


Edited and Published by 'The Leaders Hub' 13th October, 2021
What is plastic? Plastic is define as a materials that contains an essential ingredient which are made up if organic substance of large molecular weight. They are polymers of long carbon chains.
Plastic was discovered by a famous German Chemist. Christian Schonbein in 1846. Plastic were discovered accidentally. Christian was performing in the kitchen and by accident he spilt a mixture of nitric acid and sulphuric acid. To mop the solution, he took a cloth and after moping he kept it over the store.After sometime, the cloth disappeared and form their plastic got its name. Types of plastics Plastic are divided into two types depending on it physical properties. They are as follows: i. Thermoplastic = They are plastic that can be deformed easily upon heating and can be bent easily linear polymers and a combination of linear and cross-linked polymers come under Thermoplastics, Example are PVC, nylon, polythene, etc.
Thermosetting: They are plastics that cannot be softened again by heating once they are mould. Heavily cross-linked polymers come under this category. Examples of thermosetting plastic are Bakelite for making electrical switches.
And the other example of thermosetting is melamine which is use for floor tiles.
Properties of plastic 1. Strong and ductile 2. Poor conductors of heat and electricity 3. Easily mould into different shape and size 4. Resist corrosion and are resistant to many chemicals 5. Low processing cost 6. Good transparency and wear resistance. Polyethylene. They are the mostly commonly used thermoplastics in the world. The primary application of polyethylene (polythene) is in packaging. It is often use to make plastic bags, bottles, plastic films, containers. Etc
Polyethylene Properties 1. They exhibit strong creep when placed under a persistent force. 2. The mechanical strength of polyethylene is comparatively lower than other plastics. 3. They are very good insulators of electric current. 4. The rigidity and the hardness of the polymer are relatively low. 5. They exhibit strong creep when place under continuous force. Types of polyethylene 1. High-density polyethylene. (HDPE) High-density polyethylene is a thermoplastic polymer produced from the monomer.
2. High-density cross-linked (HDXLPE) is a form of polyethylene with cross-links that is used for building services pipework system.
3. Medium-density polyethylene (MDPE) medium density polyethylene, are raw granulated sheet that do not compromise on the quality of the developed products at last long.
4. Cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE) cross-linked polyethylene is a polymer with a unique molecular structure that is comprised of link-chains.
5. Low-density polyethylene, are soft flexible light weight plastic material.
Use of polyethylene - It is used in packing products - It is used for cable jacketing because it is a good insulator of electric current - LDPE is also used in pipes, fittings, garbage bags, food packaging etc. - HDPE is also used in rope, fishing and agricultural nets and industrial fabrics. Uses of plastic 1. Plastic are used to manufacture products that are used in our homes, products used in our homes, products used for building construction and infrastructure.
2. Plastic help to keep food safe and fresh
3. Plastic are used for the manufacturing of our computer, cell phone, television and microwave. Almost all appliances around us are made from plastic.
4. Plastic are used to make safety gear
5. Plastic are used in making toys.
6. Plastic is used to store water
7. Plastic is used for coating electric wire
What is Plastic Waste Plastic waste, or plastic pollution, is the accumulation of plastic objects (e.g. plastic bottles, plastic bags) in the Earth environment which later has adverse effects on the ecological system. As human population expand, the demand for plastic product increases. Manufacturers continue the production of plastic products which now resulted into this plastic waste dumped indiscriminately around our ecosystem causing environmental degradation.
What is Plastic Waste Recycling. Plastic waste recycling is the process of gathering waste plastic and reconverting them to new and useful and useable plastic product. Plastic waste recycling ensures that waste plastic does not go to waste. The waste are reprocess into another product for better use. Plastic recycling take less energy them making plastic from raw materials while helping to reducingfossil fuel consumption, rechanneling discarded plastic from the refuge stream and turning them into new goods, as such taken the material out of our natural environment. ENVIRONMENT IMPACT OF PLASTIC WASTE More plastic production keep increasing as the population of human keep expanding. And as such plastic waste is also increasing rapidly, and this increase commonage to more damage to our ecological system. Plastic usage and production have affected man’s daily living especially in most low-income nations. The quality and unique of plastics have also become a concern when it comes to the way they are disposed. For instance when plastic are use and dumped on the environment, they endure for long time in the surrounding to the that they are durable, and while thrown into the water bodies they continue to float on the surface because they are low density. More plastic production keep increasing as the population of human keep expanding. And as such plastic waste is also increasing rapidly, and this increase commonage to more damage to our ecological system. Plastic usage and production have affected man’s daily living especially in most low-income nations. The quality and unique of plastics have also become a concern when it comes to the way they are disposed. For instance when plastic are use and dumped on the environment, they endure for long time in the surrounding to the that they are durable, and while thrown into the water bodies they continue to float on the surface because they are low density. 1. Impact of Plastic Waste on Aquatic Life The life of earth’s living creatures is largely sustained by water bodies such as rivers, streams, oceans etc. as they provide most of the oxygen it breathes. The negative effective plastics had on these water bodies, is causing a concern over the condition of life and especially aquatic animals.
The rate at which the ocean is been polluted with plastic is around 12.7 million tones of plastic a year. The demand our action cause to marine life and our ecosystem is becoming irreparable. More than 1 million seabirds and 100,000 marine animals die from plastic pollution every year. 100% of baby sea turtles have plastic on their stomachs. Everyday around 8 million pieces of plastic makes their way into our oceans. The tones of plastic used daily flows through our drains, ends up in rivers and makes its way into our oceans. At the rate we’re still using plastic, the problem is set to increase tenfold, the impact this has on the ecosystem, marine life and humans are potentially irreversible.
2, Impact on the Plastics Waste on Land Animals. It was recorded that more than 250 species of living organisms and invertebrates are either caught off in plastic or directly digested them. Man is at risk if they happen to consume plant that has been inflected with toxins from contaminated basically via ingestion and entanglement.
3.Impact of Plastic Waste on Human Life When plastics waste reaches the sea, it strangulates, kill or contaminate seafood. Animals can be poisoned by plastic pollution and thereafter contaminate water source and human food. Environment Hazard Associated with Plastic in Nigeria It has been estimate that plastic demand rose globally from over 320 million tons in 2015 to more than in 2020. This implies that plastic waste is rapidly increasing damage to our ecosystem. Plastic pollution is capable of affecting land, water ways and oceans as a large percentage of marine and land creatures have died due to the fact that plastic is non-biodegradable and it cause hazards to soil. Waste plastic, blocks drainages lines and fill up land space causing floods and erosion there by causing deterioration if the Nigeria roads. Land Pollution Plastic are present in large volume in human residential environment. Human is a social animal, all the plastic products which man consumed as a result of socialization are dump on the land. These products contaminate and damage the ecosystem which subsequently transferred to the aquatic environment
Water pollution: Millions of tones of plastic are annually released into the ocean, with about trillion plastic pieces floating in the ocean. The process of plastic degradation release toxic chemicals like polystyrene and BPA into the water causing water pollution
Air pollution: During the process of plastic waste decomposition on the land filled, it releases carbon dioxide and methane which are release into the atmosphere. Burning of plastic and plastic products CO2 is release in the atmosphere when trapped is capable of causing global warning.
Blocking of Waterline The indiscriminate deposable of waste is damaging the street, as well blocking the drainage system during the raining seasons. Plastic are dump on the street, when rain falls it carry these plastic into the drainage as a result of the erosion ,and it end up the blocking and resulted to flooding
Economic Benefit of Plastic Recycling To reduce pollution, by recycling plastic material we can hand fully reduce air pollution and as well as water pollution scientist have said by 2050, the numbers of plastic in the ocean will be more than the number of fishes. When plastic are recycle, they reduce the amount of green house and toxic emission release into the air as a result of burning plastic. Recycling require muchless energy and therefore helps to preserve natural resources The benefit of recycle 1. Reduce pollution across ecosystem = When plastic are manufacture, the amount of green house gases are very high as a result of petroleum that is burn. These gases are trapped in the air and pollute the ecosystem. When the plastic are recycle, emission that are hazardous to the environment is reduce. 2. Help conserve natural resources = Manufacturing of plastic from the scatter requires much more energy compared to producing products from recycled plastic. The manufacturing from the scatter requires more natural resources: water, petroleum, natural gases and coal as raw material. Recycling save more previous natural resources. 3. Promote a sustainable life style = When business create awareness and promote positive impacts of plastic reuse and recycling, they are sure to bring a change toward environment conservation. Proper waste management approach should be greatly adhering to in preserving our precious environment. Effective way of waste management There are three ways for management of plastic waste. They can be management through the 3R (Reduce, Reuse, and Recycling). But one of the most effective methods of plastics waste management is through recycling from a proper waste management system were waste dump are always taking to landfills. What is recycling? Recycling is simply collecting and process waste plastic materials that would have been thrown away as trash and reprocessing them into new products that produce wealth. Recycling is commonly known as “waste to wealth”. Recycling is the process of recovery operation on our environment by which waste that are harmful to our environment are collected and reprocessed into products, materials or substances whether for the original or for other usage. Recycling involves two ways: it can be reuse, and recovery. Recycling picture ii. Recovery waste means any operation in which the principal waste is serving a useful purpose by replacing other materials which would otherwise have been used to fulfill a particular function, waste being prepared. Recovery waste system is one way we can effectively help our environment by taking away waste products. Materials that would have rot in landfill or float out to become an environmental hazard can be reprocessed into usable materials for future products.
Plastic waste has become a menace in our society with a lot of increasing challenges everyday in Nigeria which cannot be over emphasized. The best way to manage plastic waste is through recycling. Plastic waste have tremendous benefits in various industries like construction, clothing making, Art and designed, among many others. What is a waste can become wealth tomorrow if they are properly managed. An empty plastic of milk today can be chair tomorrow. Recycling is what will need for a sustainable environment. Recycling is highly prescribed means of reducing greenhouse gases. According to intergovernmental panel on climate change, advertising waste then, is an obvious and proven means for conserving land and resources. Take a look at some of your waste milk jugs, shampoo, laundry detergent and household plastic can become. They can be lightweight and tough.
REFERENCES Heliyon (2020) Plastic Waste: Environment Hazard and Instrument for Wealth Creation in Nigeria. Plastic in the Ocean Statistic 2020 – 2021 Condor Ferries (2021). The Ecology of Recycling. Marian Chertow (2012). Okehinde O.J. Ramonu and L.D. Justin (2020). Plastic Waste: Environmental Hazard and Instrument for Wealth in Nigeria. Economic Benefits of Recycling. Mark Poberts (2017). Plastic Chemical Compound (1990). Ferdinand Podriguez. Sustainability in the Workplace: 5 Major Benefits of Plastic Recycling Nalalie K. Macvanish. Google photos